Art of Reasoning, The - Kelley, David [SRG] - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Art. The Art of Reasoning -David Kelley (The Art of FOURTH EDITION Reasoning An Introduction to Logic) Download PDF. Share. Related. THE ART OF REASONING BY DAVID KELLEY PDF. The way to obtain this book The Art Of Reasoning By David Kelley is really easy. You may not go for some.
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An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking. FOURTH EDITION. The Art of. Reasoning n. DAVID KELLEY. W. W. NORTON & COMPANY, INC. /&, -0 /%0. Such a book is David Kelley's. The Art o/Reasoning. Kelley provides an accessible and impeccable account of the principles of formal logic as they apply to. mencosulwiemudd.gq: The Art of Reasoning: An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking (Fourth Edition) (): David Kelley: Books.
Whether abortion is right or wrong in moral terms and whether it should be legal or illegal are different issues. They are related which is why they are easily confused , but not identical. If the two people could identify the difference, they might find that they dont disagree after all. The one who says that abortion should be legal might be willing to agree that abortion is nevertheless a serious action that would be wrong to take without an equally serious reason.
And the one who says that abortion is morally wrong might be willing to agree that its still a decision that a woman should be legally free to make on her own. Of course, the argument might not work out so neatly. But well never know until we try, and we cant try until we know how to distinguish one issue from another.
Thats a skill that logic can help us develop. In this particular case, the problem of talking past each other would be fairly easy to fix because the two different issues are signaled by two different words: immoral versus illegal. A more difficult problem occurs when two people are using the same word but with two different meanings.
Suppose there is an argument over whether student work should be graded. If one person is referring specifically to letter grades, while the other is referring to any form of evaluation, they are probably going to talk past each other. If we take the different meanings of the word into account, we would have to say that here again the people are not debating the same issue.
But the problem is harder to fix because the difference in meaning lies below the surface of the language. And grade is a fairly concrete word.
Think of the possibilities for miscommunication in words like democracy, freedom, love, or art. This brings us to another area of logic: concepts and definitions. People often talk past each other when they use words with different meanings. Even when that is not a problem, it is always valuable to make the meaning of our words as clear and explicit as possible.
The Art of Reasoning : An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
Some concepts, such as democracy, are extremely hard to define, and great minds have spent lifetimes in the effort. Logic wont guarantee success, but it can give us a method to follow, and the method will pay immediate dividends in the clarity and precision of our thinking. It will also make it easier to master new concepts and words that are introduced in most courses at school.
So far we have talked about skills involved in taking ideas apart: breaking an issue down into its components, distinguishing between closely related ideas, and analyzing the meaning of a word.
The Art of Reasoning : An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
But we also need to put our ideas together again. Thinking involves synthesis as well as analysis, integration as well as differentiation. To understand a line of reasoning, we need to break it down into its parts, but we also need to Introduction put it in its wider context.
In working on a problem, the most creative solutions often come when we notice similarities to problems in other areas. In a college course, its important to understand each component of the material, but its equally important to organize the material as a whole into a logically coherent framework.
Indeed, we can often integrate ideas from different courses. In a religion or ethics class, for example, you might discuss the idea that love of money is the root of all evil. How does that relate to the economists description of money as a medium of exchange? In a political science class on democracy, you might discuss the idea that people are capable of governing themselves. Is that supported or contradicted by what youve learned in psychology, history, and philosophy?
As these examples illustrate, integration means the awareness of logical relations on a larger scale.
An idea in one area may provide evidence for an idea in another, quite different area. Or the two ideas may contradict each otherin which case they cannot both be right.
An understanding of logic will help you spot these relationships. Objectivity As you can see from our discussion so far, thinking is a complex skill. It has many component activities, each with its own methods and standards. But these methods and standards have a purpose: to help us be objective.
Objectivity in this context means staying aligned with the facts, guiding our thought processes by a concern for truth. To some extent, objectivity is a matter of choice: the choice not to indulge in wishful thinking, not to let bias or prejudice distort our judgment, and so forth.
But theres more to it than that.
Objectivity also involves a skill. Even with the best will in the world, we cant really be objective unless we know how to use our cognitive equipment: how to follow and evaluate the arguments we hear, how to isolate the relevant issues clearly, how to avoid ambiguity and vagueness in the words we use.
The essence of objectivity is the ability to step back from our train of thought and examine it critically. This is a virtue because it is the only way to avoid jumping to conclusions, the only way to check the results of our thinking, the only way to make sure that we are in touch with the facts. The results of our thinking cannot be any better than the processes by which we arrive at them.
There is no Book of Life with answers in the back where we can see whether we got it right. Good thinking is a self-directed, self-correcting process, and you are the only one who can take responsibility for steering your own mind in the right direction.
The methods and standards we discuss in this book will give you a compass. Objectivity also has a social aspect. It means not only presenting your own ideas logically but also listening to what others say.
Objectivity does not require that you be neutral, nonpartisan, or indifferent to the issue. It does require that you try to look at the matter from the other persons perspective. Even if your view is right, it is rare that any single perspective reveals the whole truth. Objectivity requires that you give a fair hearing to the evidence and arguments for the other side. Even if you reject them in the end, knowing why you reject them will give you a better understanding of your own position.
Objectivity Another aspect of objectivity is especially important in communicating with others. To get our ideas across successfully, we have to take account of the other persons context. A point so obvious to me that it hardly seems worth mentioning may not be obvious to someone else, and if I fail to mention it, he may not understand what I am saying.
Objectivity is the ability to step back from our own thinking so that we can see it critically, through the eyes of someone who does not share our outlook, our context of knowledge, our preferences, or our idiosyncrasies.
All that we can reasonably ask of our audience is the ability to follow logical connections.
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The Art of Reason by David Kelley (1994, Paperback)
Formal Logic. If A then B: How the World Discovered Logic M. Shenefelt and H. The Power of Logic F. Formal Logic: Its Scope and Limits R.
The Laws of Truth Nicholas Smith.
Critical Thinking About Science. Scientific Reasoning and Science Literacy. Brody and A. Bad Science: What is This Thing Called Science? Alan Chalmers. Theory and Reality: Probability, Statistics and Scientific Reasoning.
Damned Lies and Statistics: Naked Statistics: Data Matters: What is a P-Value Anyway?: The Improbability Principle David Hand.Some people would argue that a concept can never have completely sharp borders.
For example, if your car will not start but the lights still work, you can infer that the problem is not a dead battery.
On the contrary, there is no reason we can- not have both: In this respect, logic, like language, is a shared framework without which we could not communicate. It has many component activities, each with its own methods and standards. The greater safety of seat belts would justify the law only if we take the position that the government should require us to do what is safe. First determine whether it uses a consis- tent principle and is mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive.
The referents of a concept often have many attributes in common.